Strong Verbs in Akkadian

November 11, 2016 – 2:59 pm

A Strong Verb is one which has 3 active root letters. Each verb belongs to Vocalic Class determined by the Theme Vowel, here indicated by v/w, which is the vowel that precedes the final root in the G Present/G Preterite. It may be a/u, a/a, u/u, or i/i; yielding classes referred to as a/u, a, u, and i.

  G N D Š
Present PaRRvS PPaRRvS PaRRaS šaPRaS
Preterite PRwS PPaRwS PaRRiS šaPRiS
Participle (M) PaRiSum muPPaRSum muPaRRiSum mušaPRiSum
Perfect PtaRvS ttaPRvS PtaRRiS štaPRiS
Imperative PwRwS naPRiS PuRRiS šuPRiS
Stative/Adjective PaRvS naPRuS PuRRuS šuPRuS
Infinitive PaRaSum naPRuSum PuRRuSum šuPRuSum


1. Vocalic Class

      In N Preterite, if w is u then use i.
      In G Imperative, if w is a, first vowel usually becomes i
      In G Stative, v is usually i, but a or u is possible.

2. Precative of action:          

     +ve: lu + Preterite (but 1 pl: i + Preterite) and lu before vowel -> li^Preterite.
     -ve: ay/e  + Preterite (before vowel/cons.)

3. Precative of state:             

     lu + Stative

4. Imperative:                         

     -ve: lu + 2nd Present

5. Verbal Adjective takes adjective endings

6. Infinitive and Participle take noun endings. In masc. pl., participle may use adj or noun endings.

7. Feminine of Participle is formed by infix (a)t before case.


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